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The processes in project management have been classified into knowledge areas and _________.
The application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements is referred as:
All of the following are examples of Enterprise Environmental Factors except:
The person or organization that provides the funding or financial resources for the project is referred to as the:
During the project lifecycle stakeholder identification is expected to be:
The end of a project phase is generally considered to be:
All of the following statements about the project life cycle are true, except:
As you are defining the project in more detail and moving through the phases of the project, you are engaged in which of the following?
All of the following are generally considered characteristics of a project except:
Your company is introducing a new product to be available in the first quarter of the next business cycle. The product will support an existing product as an add-on optional feature. Which of the following is true?
Generally, a project manager’s level of authority during their project assignment can be directly related to which of the following?
A significant advantage of the functional organizational structure is:
You have been assigned as project manager in a balanced matrix organizational structure. This presents a challenge to you in obtaining and assigning project resources because:
The initiating process group includes all of the following except:
Which of the following process groups is specifically targeted to complete the project work and to satisfy project requirements?
The project manager should communicate the need for a change control process mainly because:
Success in portfolio management is generally defined as:
The set of combined processes implemented by the project manager to ensure all the elements of the project are effectively coordinated are known as:
The document that assigns a project manager and officially authorizes a project to use organizational resources for the purpose of planning, executing and controlling a project is the:
A project manager schedules meetings for many different reasons. Status review meetings are typically:
__________ is any documented procedure used to apply technical and administrative direction and surveillance for the purpose of identifying, recording, and controlling any changes to product characteristics.
A ____________ consists of the data sources, tools and techniques used to gather, integrate, analyze and disseminate the results of the combined outputs of the project management processes.
Assumptions are factors used for planning purposes and may be communicated to a project team by several different stakeholders. These factors, when stated, are generally considered to be true, real or certain and are:
The project management plan is used to:
____________ are usually included to support the overall project management plan and are developed for the purpose of providing more detailed information, guidelines and control processes for specifically defined project elements or planning components.
During the planning process the project manager should be aware that assumptions generally involve:
______________ are applicable restrictions that will affect project performance:
______________ is a formal, approved document that includes the collection of outputs of the planning process and is used to manage and control project execution.
Risk plans, quality plans, and change control plans are all _______________ to the project plan.
As a project manager, you must ensure that changes are coordinated across the entire project life cycle from conception to completion. The process that focuses on this requirement is:
A project is being executed and is progressing through its life cycle. You notice a significantly large percentage of project changes occurring on the project have been originated by the research department. What should you do?
You are managing an information technology project. A technical specialist on your team, after having an informal meeting with a low ranking customer representative working on the project, determines that a simple alteration would be a great addition to the project. You and the project sponsor have already signed off on the scope and a change control process is in place. The technical specialist installs the change with no negative effect to the project schedule and at no additional cost. What management action should be taken?
Two months into a design project, the customer requested a modification to the product specifications. The change was immediately implemented by the project team without notifying the project manager. During the final testing phase, results were different than what was planned. This scenario is an example of which of the following?
Determining if the project scope has been completed relies mostly upon the use of:
You have been selected as the project manager for a major infrastructure upgrade at your company headquarters. This means that:
As a project manager you should become familiar with the description of the product that will be delivered to ensure that:
The process of planning in increments, adding detail as the plan is developed is known as:
The scope statement includes all of the following except:
You and your team are working together, subdividing the major deliverables of the project into smaller components. You are involved in the process of:
The process that will help to improve the reliability of cost, duration, and resource estimates is:
The document that describes in detail, the objectives, project work, deliverables, and product of a project is the:
Completion of the product scope is measured against:
A work package is:
You receive a verbal change request from your client that will impact the agreed upon scope of work. You should:
All of the following are included in scope change control except:
A term used to describe the magnitude of unauthorized variations to the scope of work is:
Reviews, audits, and walk-throughs are examples of:
The ______________ aids in creating a more detailed definition of the scope of the project and can be used to validate the work of the project.
The scope baseline is defined as the:
The ______________ contains detailed descriptions of work packages.
A scope statement is important because it:
A stakeholder wants to make a change to the work breakdown structure that does not affect the time or cost of the project. What is the BEST thing to do?
Determining activity sequences, developing activity duration estimates and estimating resource requirements are necessary to:
All of the following are inputs to the process “define activities”, except:
The software cannot be tested until coding is completed. This is an example of:
You have been asked to reduce the schedule duration of a major project. Your team suggests overlapping several project activities to reduce the overall duration. This process is known as:
A functional manager for the engineering team has provided you with this information: A work package for the engineering activities will most likely require 12 weeks to complete. If everything goes well, it could take 8 weeks, but there have been times when this work has taken 24 weeks to complete. Based on this information, what is the expected duration of the work package?
A work package is behind schedule. You decide to add more resources to the activities and use overtime to correct the schedule slippage. This is an example of the technique known as:
The start of an activity must be delayed until 5 days after the finish of its preceding activity. The correct term for this modification of the logical relationship is:
Which of the following is not a tool or technique in the Control Schedule process?
The technique used to modify the project schedule to account for limited resources or to develop a “resource-limited” schedule is known as:
What kind of dependencies can be shown by the Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM)?
You are in the process of calculating the early and late start and finish dates for your project activities. This form of mathematical analysis is known as:
Your sponsor has informed you that a major project activity must be scheduled with a date to start no earlier than June 1. This is an example of:
Your project sponsor contacts you and asks you to provide an estimate on the total duration of a newly approved project. He wants the estimate to be available for a meeting with project stakeholders that has been scheduled for later in the afternoon. The most appropriate estimating technique to meet this need would be:
How does Free Float differ from Total Float?
You are working on a software development project, and are about to enter the testing phase. The project requires the installation of specific hardware which is associated with another project that has been delayed. This is an example of:
The tools and techniques of the process “Define Activities” include all of the following except:
You have been asked to develop a schematic display of the logical relationships of your project’s activities. The result of your efforts is the:
Typically, during the project planning process, a detailed project network schedule can be created after:
Generally, projects are planned by developing phases that are performed sequentially. In some cases, it is necessary to accelerate the project life cycle by overlapping project phases. Which of the following best describes this technique?
All of the following are inputs to the Determine Budget process except:
Your project’s earned value (EV) = 350, its actual cost (AC) = 400 and its planned value (PV) = 325. What is the cost variance (CV)?
Measuring the square footage of a building and then multiplying that figure by a set cost factor for construction is an example of:
Your team is in the process of finalizing and producing the cost baseline for the project you are working on. Your team is involved in which of the following?
You are involved in the process of developing an assessment of the likely quantitative amount of funding that will be required to complete the project. You are involved in:
Which of the following is not generally an example of direct cost?
Your project actual cost has been reported at $200.000. This is equal to the Earned Value. The Budget at completion for your project is $400.000. It is assumed that all future work will be accomplished at the budgeted rate. The EAC (Estimate At Completion) is:
You are requested to produce the estimated cost of the project, as closely and as accurately as possible. Which of the following techniques would you use?
Doubling the number of resources will not necessarily halve the time taken on a project. This is an example of:
Opportunity cost is associated with:
You have allocated the project costs over the life cycle of the project. The main output of this process is a (an):
Earned value management is a tool and technique that can be used in:
You are reviewing an earned value report and observe that the CPI is 1.2 and the SPI is 1. You will report to your sponsor that the project is:
Your earned value analysis report is due. Project information indicates the following: EV = 150,000, PV = 140,000, AC = 160,000. You will report to your project sponsor that the project is:
As projects progress through their lifecycles, a graph of project cost expenditures will follow a characteristic “S” shape. Typically the information provided in this type of graph indicates that:
If the cumulative CPI falls below the baseline plan, all future work must be performed at:
The average cost of a 6 year project is estimated to be $6 million per year and the estimated total profit is expected to be $12 million. The annual ROI for this project is:
Generally, Earned Value Management is a technique used for measuring variance on:
A product that is produced at a high level of quality but does not include many of the features of similar products is referred to as:
Quality planning involves documenting how the project will demonstrate compliance in meeting requirements and should be performed:
To ensure that a product has been properly prepared for safe use, which of the following should be used by the inspector operating the product?
Your team is analyzing defects and attempting to isolate the root cause of a problem. Two variables have been isolated through analysis of the data that is available. There is a concern that one of the two variables is compounding the problem by causing an effect on the other. Which of the following tools or techniques will assist in identifying the relationship between variables?
A classification according to technical characteristics for items having the same functional use is:
All of the following are tools and techniques used in Control Quality except:
You are managing a project and have discovered during a walk through inspection that a large amount of scrap material has been generated by a team of newly hired workers. The scrap material is an example of:
You have been asked to identify the primary reasons for the high percentage of product returns your company is experiencing. Which of the following tools will most effectively assist you in further identifying the reasons for the failures?
The total cost of all efforts including prevention, appraisal and defect repair to achieve product or service quality is known as:
A project team is inspecting specific outputs based on defined criteria and rejecting the defective outputs. Which process group is the team working on?
You have contracted a team of experts to define the right mix of ingredients that will produce the desired product, ensuring optimization of the process, while reducing the sensitivity of the product performance. Which of the following techniques is being used?
You have developed a graphical display of process results gathered over time and have used the information to determine that the process is not performing within expected parameters. You have identified eight consecutive data points that are above the process average. This is an indication of _______________________.
Inspections are utilized by the project manager to assess the quality of deliverables produced during the project life cycle. The costs incurred during the inspection process are associated with:
Monitoring specific project results to determine if they comply with relevant quality standards is:
Fitness for use and the legal aspects of quality are key items emphasized by:
You have gathered information about product defects through analysis and have compiled a list of defects that have been repeating over a period of time. You notice that some of the defects are appearing more frequently than others. You want to address the defects that occur most often. Which tool would you select to display and prioritize the frequency of defects?
“You are performing root cause analysis to figure out the reason behind a problem that was discovered during testing. Which process are you performing?”
All of the following are tools and techniques in the Control Quality process except:
As the project manager for the Step-Fast Personal exercise product you contract with a subject matter expert to determine if the project activities comply with organizational and project policies and procedures. The SME is specifically interested in identifying gaps and shortcomings in your processes. You have initiated which of the following?
Comparing actual or planned project practices to those of other projects to generate ideas for improvement is known as:
A project manager has the least amount of authority in the ________________ organizational structure.
Choose the right sequence of stages during team formation:
Project managers must develop skills to ensure that work is completed and deliverables are produced. This means developing an understanding of formal and informal structures of all organizations involved in the project, plus an understanding of power and politics. Understanding all of these elements will assist in improving the project manager’s:
A project manager realizes that more IT system administrators are urgently needed to manage the IT systems on a project. Who is responsible for providing these resources?
A project manager’s authority is lowest in:
You have just completed negotiations to acquire additional resources for your project. During the negotiations there was considerable conflict about which resources would be provided by the functional group. A solution was reached in which you were able to obtain most of the resources you needed, but you had to agree to give up some of those resources at an earlier date than you had planned. This conflict was resolved using which type of conflict handling?
You have just joined an informal group of people who meet to discuss new trends and issues in project management. The satisfaction that you gain from associating with that group is most closely aligned with:
Which tool is used to specify the role played by the team members on various activities of a project?
The project manager is likely to be most successful in developing a strong and supportive high performing team in which structure?
Collective bargaining agreements are an example of a (an) ______________ during organizational planning.
You have decided that your best approach to keep your team working effectively is to monitor their performance very closely and to carefully analyze their work output. This style of management is referred to as:
All of the following are tools and techniques for team development except:
Referring to the Tuckman Model, the greatest level of conflict in the phases of team building is most likely to appear in the ___________________ phase.
You are reviewing previous work experience, personal interests and personal characteristics of a potentially available group of people and preparing to negotiate for the resources you need. You are engaged in the process of:
A project manager has the greatest amount of authority in the organizational structure:
The project manager and a functional manager cannot reach agreement about the assignment of resources for a project. The functional manager insists that the resources are not available due to other priorities. In this case the conflict will require the assistance of the ____________________ to reach a solution.
The motivational theory in which the manager thinks he/she needs to watch the employees every minute is called:
The project manager of a project that you have been observing appears to remain distant from his team and often places one of his team members in charge for days at a time. This style of management is generally considered to be:
A project manager is relying on personal charisma and charm for getting the project work done. What form of authority is being used?
The sender–receiver model is designed to assist project managers and team members improve their communication skills by emphasizing:
You have been asked to provide a report about the cost and schedule variances that also indicate forecast for actuals at the end of the project. Which report will help you to get this information?
There are 15 people in a team, an addition of one person was made. How many communication channels are present in the team now?
As a project manager for a new and highly complex project, when is it important for you to develop your communications plan?
Project resources should be expended only on communicating information that:
Which of the following roles of the Project Manager best explains the fact that project managers spend 90% of their time on communication?
The collecting, storing, analysis and distribution of project information is accomplished most effectively by using:
During project execution, the project manager is required to submit several reports that will communicate information about the project. Describing the project conditions at the present moment in relationship to schedule and other metrics is found in the:
A project team has 10 members. An eleventh member has just been added. How many communication channels does the team have?
The cost performance index (CPI) is used to indicate:
Your project currently has ten people assigned to the project team including yourself. At the end of the month you will be adding three additional team members to your project. What is the change in the number of communications channels after you add the new team members?
In the communications model the sender transmits information to the receiver. Communication is most effective between sender and receiver when the____________ between the sender and receiver overlaps.
Which of the following is NOT a best practice for project meetings?
In the communication process, the basic communications model includes all of the following except:
Which of the following is NOT an output of the Manage communications process?
Which of the following does NOT represent “noise”?
Which of the following is most tightly linked to the Plan Communications Management process?
All of the following are inputs to the process of Plan Risk Management except:
Outputs from Control Risks include all of the following except:
You are managing a project and have a major decision to make about a change in the plan. You decide to contact several subject matter experts to obtain their opinions before making a decision. Each expert is unaware of the participation by any of the other experts you have contacted. The process being used is:
You have just completed an analysis of project risks and have prioritized them using a probability and impact matrix. The approach you used to prioritize the risks is:
Defining ______________ will provide a structure for systematically identifying risks to a consistent level of detail during the project planning process. The areas defined in this process should reflect common sources of risk for the industry or application area.
All of the following are tools and techniques for risk identification except:
A team implemented planned responses for some of the identified risks, but some risks remained. What are these risks called?
The Ishikawa or fishbone diagram is used to display:
The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the “Identify Risk process” include all of the following except:
Your team is using a probability impact matrix. The scales on each axis of the matrix are labeled Very High, High, Moderate, Low and Very Low. Which process is your team performing?
The two dimensions of risk used to determine expected value are:
Your team is using a model that translates the uncertainties specified at a detailed level into their potential impact on project objectives at the level of the whole project. The technique being used is:
You believe the project’s product design effort would be a major challenge to the team’s abilities and you do not have the tools or material to manage it effectively. You decide to seek a supplier who specializes in the specific technical area. You sign a fixed-price contract to execute this piece of the project work. This is an example of:
Your team has utilized all of the appropriate tools and techniques for responding to identified project risks and has discovered that some risks have been reduced in impact but remain a potential threat. These risks require further monitoring and are referred to as:
All of the following are tools and techniques for Control Risks except:
Project risk is typically characterized by what three elements:
Purchasing insurance is considered an example of risk:
You are the project manager assigned to a critical project, which requires that you handle project risk intentionally and methodically, so you have assembled only the project team. They have identified 32 potential project risks, determined what would trigger the risks, rated and ranked each risk using a risk rating matrix. You have also reviewed and verified all documented assumptions from the project team and verified the sources of data used in the process of identifying and rating the risks. You are continuing to move through the risk management process. What have you forgotten to do?
A project manager is faced with a product design risk issue. It has been determined that the materials used to house a critical component of the product are subject to significant corrosion as a result of exposure to the typical work environment. The project team has decided to modify the design using very expensive corrosion-resistant materials in this component, which will basically eliminate the risk. The technique used by the team is:
Using the following information and a normal distribution curve, what is the probability that the project will be completed in 64 days?
When you decide to give up your rights under contract to expedite an activity by circumventing a process you have decided to:
The tools and techniques of Control Procurements include all of the following except:
The process that ensures that each party meets their contractual obligations and that their legal rights are protected is:
Ending a contract before all contractual objectives have been reached due to a buyers decision to change business direction is an example of:
As the buyer during the contract negotiation process, you are interested in a contract that would have the least amount of risk to your organization. Which of the following contracts would be preferred to meet your risk-averse needs?
The buyer has negotiated a cost plus incentive fee contract with the seller. The contract has a target cost $300,000, a target fee of $40,000, a sharing ratio of 80/20, a maximum fee of $60,000 and a minimum fee of $10,000. If the actual cost of the project is $380,000 how much will the buyer pay as a fee to the seller?
You are involved in finalizing contract negotiations. The definitive contract has not yet been signed and may take an additional two weeks but it is critical to start several work packages within the three days’ work to avoid schedule problems later. You should utilize a:
A contract can be described as:
Buyers may wish to review the qualifications of potential sellers before they actually meet with them. This process is known as:
As the project manager for a new project you have been given the responsibility to provide all potential contractors with the information they need to determine if they would like to continue with the contracting process. To accomplish this you may want to schedule a:
All of the following are examples of procurement documents except:
A cost reimbursable contract introduces greater risk to the:
The seller is protected from liabilities and penalties when a project is impacted by a natural disaster through the:
A high level description of the scope issued by the buyer, specifying the work expected to be completed by the seller is called:
The legal contractual relationship that exists between a buyer and a seller after the contract is signed is known as:
In a cost reimbursable contract, the risk of cost escalation is borne by the:
A cost-plus-incentive-fee (CPIF) contract has an estimated cost of $150,000 with a predetermined fee of $15,000 and a share ratio of 80/20. The actual cost of the project is $130,000. What is the total fee that will be awarded to the seller?
Under which type of contract does the seller accept all liability for poor workmanship, engineering errors and consequential damages?
Contractual language does not preclude the possibility of misunderstandings and situations that could adversely affect project progress. Therefore, it is considered a best practice to have a _________________________ committee established as a means of removing the obstacles and managing conflicts.
Which of the following contract types does not encourage the seller to control costs and, as a result, places the greatest risk on the buyer?
Project information has been distributed according to the communications plan. Some project deliverables have been changed and were made according to the change control plan. One stakeholder expressed surprise to the project manager upon being informed of a previously published change to a project deliverable. All other stakeholders received notification of the change. What should the project manager do?
During stakeholder analysis the project manager and team may use many different models to classify stakeholders. The model that helps to analyze a stakeholder’s ability to impose his or her will or power and influence the need for immediate attention from the project team along with the legitimacy of the stakeholder’s involvement is the:
Which of the following may NOT be a stakeholder to a project?
Stakeholder management involves all of the following EXCEPT:
Which of the following should you be most concerned about, during stakeholder analysis?
What is the best way to manage stakeholders which are low on power and interest?
Which of the following is a tool to assess the current and desired state of engagement of a stakeholder on the project?
Which of the following is an input to the plan stakeholder management process?
Which conflict resolution technique is most likely to result in a permanent resolution?
All of the following is true about critical path activities EXCEPT:
An important stakeholder in a project is at an “unaware” state at present, i.e. he does not know what is going on in a project. You reckon that his support could be very important. Which of the following is the BEST way to get him to a “supportive” state?
Which of the following is a tool and technique used in manage stakeholder engagements process?
A project manager is reviewing the stakeholder management plan and communications management plan and sending appropriate information to the stakeholders. She sets up meetings with the stakeholders and ensures that their expectations are being realized. She makes sure that any issues that get raised are addressed promptly as far as possible. Which process in stakeholder management is being worked on here?
One of the important inputs to the Control stakeholder engagements is:
During the execution of a construction project, excavation activities unearth some artifacts that seem to have some archaeological importance. What should the project manager do?